Aim: In Nigeria, alongside other developing countries, the pharmacy is the first resource for people with varied health conditions. It is likely that individuals suffering from toothache would contact the community pharmacist (CP) first rather than the dentist. This is because most illnesses are treated by self-medication. This study looks at the types of oral health conditions and treatment needs encountered by CPs in Plateau State, Nigeria.
Materials and methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study on CPs spanning all 17 local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau State was conducted. Data collection was survey method using paper-based self-administered questionnaires.
Results: Community pharmacists (113) participated in the study. In all, per week, about 534 patients requiring oral health care were seen by the CPs; 25% of the CPs encounter these patients daily. There was a positive correlation between these patients (534) and the average daily patient traffic to the pharmacies (7,018), Pearson\'s correlation coefficient, r was 0.443 (p = 0.000). Toothache (94.7%) was the most common oral health advice requested followed by bad breath (69.9%) and teething (69%). Nearly all (96.5%) the CPs provide some form of service to clients who approach them with oral health problems.
Conclusion: Community pharmacies by virtue of their locations and services make them a facility frequently visited by patients with oral health complaints. A lot of patients contact them regularly for different oral health needs.
Clinical significance:The vantage position of CPs in the community makes them viable sources of oral health information. Thus, CPs can be engaged in oral health-promotion activities complementing the functions of oral health care workers. This might help reduce oral health disparities by increasing oral health awareness, improving oral health-seeking behavior, better oral hygiene practices, and improving the quality of life via costeffective delivery of pharmacy-based oral health care services.
Afra H Elrashid,
Rawan K Al-Kadi,
Mohammad A Baseer,
Ghousia S Rahman,
Abdulrahman D Alsaffan,
Rabiya B Uppin
How to cite this article:
Elrashid AH, Al-Kadi RK, Baseer MA, Rahman GS, Alsaffan AD, Uppin RB. Correlation of Sociodemographic Factors and Oral Health Knowledge among Residents in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2018; 12 (1):8-13.
Objective: First, to assess the basic oral health knowledge of residents attending shopping malls in Riyadh city, and second, to determine the correlation between sociodemographic factors and oral health knowledge.
Materials and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated correlation between sociodemographic conditions and oral health knowledge among Saudi residents shopping in various malls of Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20 items was distributed to 377 shoppers and 349 questionnaires were filled and returned back. Collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 21. Mean and standard deviation scores were calculated and compared between different sociodemographic groups. Pearson\'s correlation tests were applied.
Results: Overall mean knowledge score of 12.53 ± 3.38 was observed among the study subjects. Comparisons made between different age groups, gender, education, occupation, marital status, and nationality have shown statistically significant difference in oral health knowledge. Moreover, oral health knowledge showed significant positive correlation with various sociodemographic variables.
Conclusion: Residents attending shopping malls in Riyadh city showed gaps in oral health knowledge. Sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender, education, occupation, nationality, and marital status have shown significant differences and positive correlation with oral health knowledge.
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Gulia J, Hooda A, Kumar A, Agarwal D. Measurement and Evaluation of the Normal Range of Maximal Mouth Opening and Its Correlation with Age, Body Height, Weight, and Gender in the Young Indian Population. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2018; 12 (1):14-19.
Aim: To measure and evaluate the normal range of maximal mouth opening (MMO) in young children aged 3 to 12 years from Indian population and to examine the possible influence of age, gender, height, and body weight on MMO.
Materials and methods: The assessment of MMO is accomplished with a modified Vernier caliper by measuring the distance between the incisal edge of upper and lower incisor during MMO up to the painless limit. Participants of the study were healthy children selected among regular students from local schools. Age, gender, height, and body weight of each child were also recorded at the same time.
Results: The results of the present study revealed that MMO in Indian children was 41.61, 44.9, and 46.81 mm for boys and 40.09, 44.22, and 46.2 mm for girls at age of 3, 4, and 5 years respectively. In mixed dentition, the MMO in Indian children was 46.04, 48.53, and 52.38 mm for boys and 45.95, 47.27, and 52.05 mm for girls at age groups of 6 to 8, 8 to 10, and 10 to 12 years respectively. Further significant associations were noted between age, height, body weight, and MMO. However, no gender difference was observed.
Conclusion: A definite relationship exists between MMO, age, height, and body weight in Indian children with primary dentition as well as in mixed dentition.
Shruti G Virupaxi
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Bharath K, Neena I, Roshan N, Virupaxi SG. A Comparative Study of Filmed Modeling and Tell-show-do Technique on Anxiety in Children undergoing Dental Treatment. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2018; 12 (1):20-24.
Introduction: Dental appointment has been considered a stressful situation in children with elevated anxiety and avoidance behavior, which if not effectively managed will possibly continue to adulthood. There are various techniques of managing anxious children in dental clinics like communicative, pharmacologic, and nonpharmacologic interventions, but recently the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry has recommended to conduct more studies on nonpharmacologic interventions.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two nonpharmacologic behavior management techniques, filmed modeling (FM) and Tell-Show-Do (TSD) technique, on dental anxiety in children and to compare them based on heart rates and modified Venham\'s anxiety scale.
Materials and methods: Twenty children aged between 6 and 9 years who were on their first dental visit were split into groups I and II. Group I children were conditioned for restorative treatment by TSD technique, whereas group II with FM. The anxiety levels were recorded at different intervals for the two techniques using heart rate and modified Venham\'s anxiety rating scale. Student\'s t-test was done to compare heart rate between two groups at various time intervals, and Pearson\'s correlation coefficient was done to measure the relation between heart rate and Venham\'s score.
Results: No statistically significant differences were seen in heart rate measures, clinical anxiety scores of children between the two groups. The p-values for both the treatment groups at various time intervals were H1—0.660, H2—0.665, H3—0.835, H4—0.483, and H5—0.681 respectively. Student\'s t-test shows that there was no significant difference in both the treatment groups, and Pearson\'s correlation coefficient test shows that there is highly positive correlation at different time intervals, which means that as the heart rate increases, the modified Venham\'s score also increases.
Conclusion: Filmed modeling can be an efficient alternative method to TSD technique in preparation of the 6- to 9-year-old children during dental treatment.
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Bhatnagar A, Parihar S, Parihar AV. Evaluating the Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Hematological Parameters among Subjects with Chronic Periodontitis: An Interventional Study. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2018; 12 (1):25-30.
Aim: With advancements in science and technology, our knowledge and understanding about the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and its impact on systemic health of humans has increased. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on hematological parameters among subjects with chronic periodontitis.
Materials and methods: A total of 42 systemically healthy male patients with chronic periodontitis with age group between 30 and 55 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters evaluated from peripheral blood samples at baseline were hemoglobin (Hb) level, erythrocyte count [red blood cells (RBC)], erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded at baseline. Periodontal therapy including surgery, if required, was carried out in all the patients. Periodontal clinical parameters were repeated at 6 and 12 months. The hematological parameters again were recorded at the end of 12 months.
Results: Data analyses showed statistically significant improvements in Hb levels and erythrocyte counts after periodontal therapy. Decreased value of ESR after treatment indicated resolution of periodontal inflammation. There was nonsignificant improvement in MCV value, and much lesser improvement in MCH and MCHC values.
Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that periodontal therapy leads to an improvement in hematological parameters in chronic generalized periodontitis patients. It can also conclude that chronic periodontitis can lead to anemia, like other chronic diseases.
Rehabilitation of compromised patients has always been a challenge to the medical field. Prosthodontic management of completely edentulous patient with unilateral facial paralysis is a difficult task to accomplish. This requires alteration of conventional procedures.
This article presents a case report of a completely edentulous patient with facial paralysis of left side since 3 years. To enhance function and esthetics, a liquid-supported denture was planned for maxillary arch and neutral zone technique for mandibular arch.
Rajani A Dable,
Sheeba H Sharma,
Shyam U Jadhav
Maxillofacial defects like oronasal fistulae present a functional problem due to the unsuccessful surgical reconstructive and repair attempts. The only option that remains with the patient is to go for maxillofacial obturation of the same. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of maxillary palatal defects in the anterior region is a crucial job for every prosthodontist as esthetics is of paramount importance here. Oronasal fistula results from congenital malformations or it can be an acquired defect resulting from surgery for oral neoplasms or trauma. The cleft palate patient is mainly characterized by the presence of an oronasal communication, malformation or agenesis of the teeth close to the cleft, and deficient sagittal and transverse growth of the maxilla. Prosthodontic rehabilitation depends on the conditions available, such as size and location of fistula, age of the patient, psychological status, and demand for esthetics. The present case report is about a patient with cleft lip and palate with an oronasal fistula (communication) that had recurred following the cleft reconstruction surgery. Out of various available prosthetic treatments, emphasis is being placed on the approach chosen to make it acceptable to the patient.