The goal of any prosthetic procedure must include the establishment of a functional occlusion. It is known that natural teeth have periodontal ligament receptors that protect the teeth from excessive occlusal forces, which can cause trauma to supporting tissues and bone. Although many factors are involved in the neuro-muscular reex actions in natural teeth, there are no specic defense mechanisms against occlusal forces in implant-supported prosthesis. Complications (prosthetic or bony support) reported in follow-up studies underline occlusion as one of the determining factors for success or failure of implants.
Stresses in the periodontal ligament. J Periodontal Res 1973;8:51–56.
Mobility characteristics and tactile sensitivity of osseointegrated fixture-supporting systems. In:van Steenberghe, D., eds. Tissue integration in oral maxillofacial reconstruction: Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica 1986:p326–32.
Implants and the periodontium. Int Dent J 1995;45:16–26.
Anatomy of periodontium. In: Lindhe J, Karring T and Lang NP. Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry. 3rd ed. Copenhagen: Munksgaaard 1998:p45–49.
Occlusal considerations for Implant supported prostheses. In: Misch CE. eds. Contemporary implant dentistry: St. Louis: Mosby 1993:p705–33.
Measurement of physiological mobility of individual teeth in an axial direction. J Dent Res 1960;39:608–18.
In vivo horizontal bending moments on implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1998;13:232–44.
Force transfer in implant dentistry: basic concepts and principles. J Oral Implantol 1992;18:264–74.
Inflammation and trauma from occlusion: Co-destructive factors in periodontal disease. J Periodontol 1963;34:5–10.
Bone “mass” and the mechanostat: a proposal. Anat Rec 1987;219:1–9.
Comparative evaluation of oral tactile function by means of teeth or implant support prostheses. Clin Oral Implant Res 1991;2:75–80.
Comparison between implant supported prosthesis and teeth regarding passive threshold level. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:549–54.
Bone resorption around fixtures in edentulous patients treated with mandibular fixed tissue-integrated prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 1988; 59:59–63.
Fixture design and overload inuence marginal bone loss and fixture success in the Branemark system. Clin Oral Implants Res 1992;3:104–11.
Survival of fixed implant-supported Prostheses related to cantilever lengths. J Prosthet Dent 1994; 71:23–26.
Occlusal Force pattern in dentitions with mandibular implant-supported fixed cantilever prostheses occluded with complete dentures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1989;4:55–62.
Occlusal Interferences and cantilever joint stress in implant-supported prostheses occluding with complete dentures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1990;5:70–77.
Patient selection and preparation. In: Branemark PI, Zarb GA and Albrektsson T. eds. Tissue-integrated prostheses. Chicago, London, Berlin, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo: Quintessence Publishing Company 1985:p199–210.
Occlusal considerations of implant supported prosthese. In: Misch CE. eds. Contemporary implant dentistry. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby 1999:p609–28.
Endosteal implants for posterior single tooth replacement: alternatives, indications, contraindications, and limitations. J Oral Implantol 1999;25:80–94.
Peri-implant bone changes in response to progressive osseous loading. J Dent Res 1997;76 (special issue):412.
Bending overload and implant fracture: a retrospective clinical analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1995;7:40–44.
Finite element stress analysis of the effect of short implant usage in place of cantilever extensions in mandibular posterior edentulism. J Oral Rehab 2002;29:350–56.
The elastic and ultimate properties of compact bone tissue. J Biomech 1975;80:393–405.
Reduction of implant loading with therapeutic biomechanics. Implant Dent 1998;7:277–85.
Load factor control for implants in the posterior partially edentulous segment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:360–70.
Occlusion: Periodontal and occlusal factors in crown and bridge procedures. Amsterdam: Dental Center for Postgraduate Courses 1985:85.
Concepts of occlusion. In: Occlusion: principles and concepts. St. Louis, Tokyo: Ishiyaku Euro America, Inc 1985:p179–90.
Ideal occlusion. In: Osseointegration and occlusal rehabilitation. Tokyo, Berlin, Chicago, London, SaoPaulo, Hong Kong: Quintessence Publishing Company 1989:p315–28.
Articulation of human teeth. In: Collum BB and Stuart CE eds. South Pasadana, CA: Scientic press; 1955:p91–123.
Considerations of occlusion in fixxed partial dentures. Dent Clin North Am 1959;37:175–85.
The canine teeth: normal-functional relation of the natural teeth of man. J South California Dent Assoc 1958;26:1–7.
Principles of occlusion for implant prostheses: guidelines for position, timing, and force of occlusal contacts. Quintessence Int 1989; 20:473–80.
Optimal occlusion. Dental Clinics of North America 1969;37:537–54.
Biomechanical aspects of fixed bridge work supported by natural teeth and endosseous implants. Periodontology 2000 1994; 4:23–40.
How occlusal forces change in implant patients: a clinical research report. J Am Dent Assoc 1995;126:1130–33.
Complications in partially edentulous implant patients: a 5-year retrospective follow-up study of 133 patients supplied with unilateral maxillary prostheses. Clin Implant Dent Related Res 1999;1:49–56.
Prosthetic management of the partially dentate patient with fixed implant restorations. Clin Oral Implant Res 2000;11 Suppl 1:126–45.
Occlusion. In: eds Clinical decision making and treatment planning in osseointegration. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co; 1996:p169–76.
A comparative study of one implant vs. two replacing a single molar. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1996; 11:372–78.