Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2009 ) > List of Articles


Biologic Width: Evaluation and Correction of its Violation

Nikhil Sharma, Nitin Khuller

Citation Information : Sharma N, Khuller N. Biologic Width: Evaluation and Correction of its Violation. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2009; 3 (1):20-25.

DOI: 10.5005/johcd-3-1-20

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 00-01-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2009; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


The concept of Biologic Width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. An attempt has been made in this article to discuss the concept of biologic width, its importance in maintaining a long term dental restoration including crown & bridge and implants, and the implications of biologic width violation. Lastly, we discuss the possible methods to assess biologic width and surgical & non-surgical corrective procedures.

PDF Share
  1. Mitotic activity of human oral epithelium exposed to 30 percent hydrogen peroxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 1961;14:474–92.
  2. The dimensions of the human dentogingival junction. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1994;14(2):154–65.
  3. The relationship between the location of subgingival crown margins and gingival inflammation. J Periodontol 1974;45(3):151–4.
  4. Gingivoplasty. G Stomatol Ortognatodonzia 1986;5(4):57–8.
  5. Periodontal response to long-term abuse of the gingival attachment by supracrestal amalgam restorations. J Clin Periodontol 1989;16(10):654–9.
  6. Placement of Preperation Line and Periodontal Health-A Prospective 2 Year Clinical Study. Int J Perio Rest Dent 2000;20:173–81.
  7. The “biologic width”-a concept in periodontics and restorative dentistry. Alpha Omegan 1977, 70(3):62–5.
  8. Physiologic dimensions of the periodontium significant to the restorative dentist. J Periodontol 1979;50(4):170–4.
  9. The intracrevicular restorative margin, the biologic width, and the maintenance of the gingival margin. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1984;4(3):30–49.
  10. A review of the functional and esthetic requirements for dental implants. J Am Dent Assoc Mar 2007;138:321–29.
  11. The relationship of the position of crown margins to gingival health. J Prosthet Dent 1987;57(4):421–24.
  12. Healing of the dento-epithelial junction following subgingival plaque control. II: As observed on extracted teeth. J Periodontol 1978;49(3):119–34.
  13. Significance of the width of keratinized gingiva on the periodontal status of teeth with submarginal restorations. J Periodontol 1987;58(10):696–700.
  14. Eruption of teeth into crowded position, loss of attachment, and downgrowth of subgingival plaque. Am J Orthod. 1980;78(4):453–9.
  15. Periodontal tissue reactions to restorative procedures. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1981, 1(1):8–23.
  16. Effect of crown margin location on plaque and periodontal health. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1989;9(3):197–205.
  17. Clinical Periodontology, 10th Edition, Saunders-Elsevier, Missouri (USA).
  18. Periodontal conditions in patients 5 years following insertion of fixed prostheses. Pocket depth and loss of attachment. J Oral Rehabil 1976;3(3):237–43.
  19. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month clinical wound healing study. J Periodontol. 2001;72(7):841–8.
  20. Clinical and histologic observations on tooth movement during and after orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod 1967;53(10):721–45.
  21. Forced eruption: principles in periodontics and restorative dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 1982, 48(2):141–8.
  22. Reestablishing biologic width with forced eruption. Quintessence Int 2003;34:733–738.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.